THE FBI'S APRIL 19, 1993 GAS AND TANK ATTACK
Who ever heard of
Americans using tanks against Americans on American soil?
Attorney General Janet Reno claims she directed that the operation was to proceed incrementally, negotiations were to remain an option, and the FBI should pull back if the children were endangered. While Reno permitted the FBI to make tactical decisions, the attorney general, or anyone to whom she delegated that power, could still call off the assault at any time. However, whoever was in charge did not call it off, despite the Davidians' pleadings for negotiations, despite their stubborn refusal to surrender to what they regarded as unjust authority, and despite mounting evidence the attack would lead to massive loss of life.
APRIL 19TH CHRONOLOGY
During the morning of April 19, 1993 five tanks2/, some flying American
flags, began the attack on Mount Carmel Center. Ironically, the Branch
Davidians were flying the Star of David on this day, the 50th anniversary
of the Nazi attack on the Jewish Warsaw ghetto--and the 218th anniversary
of the first battles of the American Revolution at Lexington and Concord.
Cause Foundation's Kirk Lyons alleges that driving one of those tanks was
Lon Horiuchi, the sniper who killed Vicki Weaver. R. J. Craig, another
tank driver in the Weaver siege, drove the tank that probably started one
or more of the fires at Mount Carmel.3/ Commander of the Hostage
Rescue Team, of course, was Richard Rogers, who also commanded the murderous
siege against the Weavers.
The chronology that follows was assembled from the relevant Justice report text and FBI forward looking infrared ("infrared" or "FLIR") photographs which show heat spots as light, FBI overhead photographs, trial testimony, news video, newspaper accounts, and survivors' reports, which are referenced in this and the following chapters. I also referred to Michael J. McNulty's analysis of the full infrared video tape.4/ I have viewed only the short sections played on ABC's "Nightline," May 5, 1995. Because eyewitnesses' watches were not synchronized, some times listed are approximate. The infrared camera was set to what one government witness called "National Standard Time."5/
(Note: All times are Central Time.)
5:55 a.m.--Tanks go to front east and west of building and back of the gymnasium.
5:59--FBI tells a Davidian the gas attack is about to begin. The FBI alleges Davidian throws the phone out the window. Davidians deny this.
6:00--FBI loudspeakers begin demanding surrender, continue through the morning. Bradley vehicle begins delivering "liquid ferret tear gas rounds," i.e., gas grenades, into the underground tornado shelter.
6:04--Agents allege Davidians are firing on the tanks. FBI opts to speed up delivery of gas, begins launching first of 400 gas grenades into the building.6/
6:07-6:31--Tanks poke holes in building and insert gas at front east and west sides of building. Four Bradleys deploy gas grenades through the windows.
6:24--FBI tells Davidians to hang out a white flag if the phone is not working. Davidians place dark blanket in the front door.
6:45-7:04--Tanks deliver more gas grenade rounds to every part of the building.
7:30--Tank rips hole in front east first floor of building and inserts gas.
7:58--Tank breaches a hole in the second floor back east corner of building. Tank rips into second floor womens' quarters.7/
9:10--Davidians hang out banner that reads, "We want our phones fixed."
9:17--Tank breaks through the front door, wedging doors against barrier.
9:28--Tank enlarges the opening in middle front of building; may have collapsed stairway near kitchen at this time. "CEV2" breaks down and a new CEV2, which is not equipped with tear gas, replaces it.
9:49-9:54--The FBI says phone will be connected only if there is a clear signal it is for surrender purposes. Graeme Craddock exits, discovers the phone line has been severed, and signals that. The FBI does not reconnect phone.
10:00--(11:00 Eastern Time) Attorney General Janet Reno leaves the Justice Department for a speech in Baltimore. Calls President Clinton at this time.8/
10:30--Bob Ricks holds FBI press briefing and announces, "We're not negotiating," and mentions plans for dismantling building if necessary.
10:41:58--Infrared video camera begins taping.
10:47:16-10:52:57--Period of missing infrared video tape.
10:00-11:00--Bradleys continue delivering gas grenades through various openings.
11:19-26--Tank begins demolition and enters fully into the gymnasium.
11:30-35--Tanks continue demolition of gymnasium. Tanks smash into both the front door and the middle front of the building. Agents try to call into compound. FBI steps up operations. Tank smashes through gymnasium wall and roof collapses.
11:40--FBI claims last gas grenades delivered.
11:42--Tank rams middle front of building and building debris that looks like flame is seen on front of tank.
Unknown time--Tank boom rams through window and wall of the second floor old arms' room.
11:52--Tank smashes into front door again. Both front doors have are pulled away from the building.
11:55-11:59--Gymnasium dog run collapses; tank smashes around inside gymnasium.
11:56--The FBI claims tank through front door destroys surveillance device.
11:56 a.m.-12:02 p.m. Approx.--Largest tank smashes through front door, finishes collapsing stairway. It probably collapses part of concrete room's ceiling, killing women and children. Tank knocks over several gallon containers of lantern fuel in south end of chapel.
12:01--A loudspeaker message mocks Koresh: "David, we are facilitating you leaving the compound by enlarging the door. David, you have had your 15 minutes of fame. . .Vernon is no longer the Messiah. Leave the building now."9/
12:06--Tank rips away part of the east front corner of exterior wall, ground floor level; boom smashes into second floor. "A few minutes later, from the section of the building, a flicker of orange could be seen."10/ Survivor Renos Avraam claims tank knocked down lantern in second floor room above where tank ripped away wall and started a fire.
12:07:41--Infrared video indicates first fire on second floor, east front.
12:08:11--Infrared photo shows large fire already developed on dining room wall and tank sitting north of collapsed gymnasium roof. News video shows tank west of dining room from which smoke is seen billowing.
12:08:17-22--Infrared photograph shows two large flashes in end of dog run.
12:09:25--Infrared photo shows second floor front fire is well developed. Tank sits outside church area throughout fire.
12:09:45--Chapel fire first visible on infrared. Approximate time Graeme Craddock escapes from the west side of chapel and makes way to concrete building next to water tower. He hears gun shots fired from within building and "elsewhere."
12:10--One FBI agent 300 yards south of building claims he sees a man start fire near the piano, in the area where front doors had been. News video shows no fire in this area for at least another 5 minutes. Another FBI agent north of building notes collapse of gymnasium.
12:10:40--Infrared photo shows room between chapel and collapsed gymnasium on fire and dining room wall fully inflamed. Gymnasium fire meets chapel fire. After this point fire burns too brightly for infrared video to be of use.
12:12--An FBI agent notes fire in gymnasium.
12:13--The FBI calls fire department.
12:20-12:25 Approx.--Four story tower collapses. News videos show tank smashing into front of building as it burns, possibly preventing Davidians from escaping. Chief negotiator Byron Sage has a trophy photograph taken of himself with the burning Mount Carmel in the background. Huge fire ball explodes near concrete room.
12:25 and/or 12:30--Agents report sounds of gunfire inside Mount Carmel Center. About same time SWAT team video footage indicates gunfire which might be coming from outside building.
12:34--Fire vehicles arrive, but are held back by the FBI.
12:30-12:45 Approx.--Tanks with bulldozer blades push burning walls and debris into burning rubble of Mount Carmel.
12:41--Fire vehicles approach burning remains of building and begin showering the ruins with water.
LACK OF SAFETY AND FIRE PRECAUTIONS
Despite their undertaking a large scale operation with great potential for loss of innocent life, the FBI had minimal safety and fire precautions on April 19, 1993. The Treasury report emphasized that BATF requires their agents to have a written plan for the kind of dynamic entry it attempted against the Davidians. Yet, FBI agent R. J. Craig revealed at trial that the supposedly more professional FBI prepared no written plans or instructions for agents for the assault. Nor was there a post-assault written report of the day or a log of moment-by-moment battlefield decisions.11/
Reckless Tank Drivers Took No Precautions
According to the Justice report, "Members of the HRT were assigned to be tank drivers, tank commanders, Bradley vehicle crew, snipers, and sniper's support. . .An orbiting helicopter with SWAT personnel aboard would apprehend and arrest subjects attempting to flee from the crisis site."12/
Well before April 19th FBI agents had been criticized for their sloppy tank driving techniques, especially after a Bradley driver trying to move a Waco Tribune-Herald vehicle stranded on the property, ran over and crushed it.13/ The FBI gave no consideration to whether tanks ramming Mount Carmel would injure or kill the people inside. At the April 19th 10:30 a.m. press briefing a reporter asked if the FBI warned those inside each time a tank was about to smash into the building. Ricks answered, "We are not advising them ahead of time. We are continuing to advise them to please exit the compound."14/ At trial FBI Agent Mike Toulouse acknowledged that in his three briefings of tank drivers FBI HRT commander Richard Rogers did not discuss "contingency plans" if the ceilings or stairways collapsed or if tanks injured people inside. And agent R.J. Craig testified that although he had had about 15 briefings on the gassing plan, the demolition plan was never described to him, even though it was part of Richard Rogers' plan since its first formulation.15/ Obviously, the FBI had no fire marshals on the scene who could advise the FBI as to whether its ramming and breaching actions could start a fire--or prevent Davidians from escaping one.
Justice Department Deems Fire Precautions Useless
Fire precautions were equally lacking. According to the Justice report, one assistant U.S. attorney raised the possibility of fire and suggested fire fighting equipment be placed on standby. Deputy Assistant Director Danny Coulson explained that "due to the range of the Branch Davidians' weapons," fire fighting equipment could not be brought in because it would pose "an unacceptable risk to the fire fighters."16/ Of course, threat of gunfire has not stopped inner-city fire departments from doing their jobs. And CNN and network news footage before and during the fire FBI shows agents, obviously with little fear of being shot, leaving their tanks on a number of occassions.
If the FBI had been serious about saving lives, it did have other options. One raised by defense attorneys at trial, and possibly considered and dismissed by FBI agents, was the use of "flamex" a fire retardant material which can be used before or during a fire. According to James Pate, Flamecheck Corporation of Santa Paula, California, offered the FBI the use of an armored, remote-controlled fire fighting tank made in the Czech Republic. The tank has a rotating water/foam canon that can deliver 600 gallons of foam or water per minute. The FBI declined the offer.17/ The U.S. military also has access to such heavy-duty fire extinguishing tanks.
Janet Reno admits she gave little thought to the possibility of fire and worried more about an explosion.18/ Reno asserted at the April 28, 1993 House Judiciary Committee hearing, "I was concerned about intentional or accidental explosions and ordered that additional resources be provided to ensure that there was an adequate emergency response." Evidently, her orders were not followed.
One precaution the FBI may have taken was to create a "fire break" around the building, to prevent any fire from spreading to the tall grass nearby. At trial one FBI agent rejected an attorney's suggestion he was trying to scrape away such grassy top soil.19/ Yet widely broadcast FBI photographs taken just before the fire indicate such a cleared area.
Social Worker Not Informed About Assault
Texas Department of Social Services social worker Joyce Sparks told a particularly damning story about the FBI's lack of preparation to Oklahoma KPOC-TV producers of "The Waco Incident." An FBI agents had told Sparks about their plans to gas Mount Carmel. The agent told her that since there were no gas masks for the children, there would be only light gassing and that Davidians would be brought to the showers afterwards and given new clothes. She was told social workers would be called to the scene the morning of the gassing to help at the showers.
However, Sparks was not notified by the FBI and learned about the attack only at 9:30 a.m. when the Governor's office called to ask why she and her staff were not there. An angry Sparks immediately called FBI siege commander Jeff Jamar. When asked if she should come to the site, she was told the FBI "doesn't know if anyone is coming out." She then told her husband, "They intend to kill them all."20/
Parkland Burn Unit Alerted to Fire Possibility
Many speculate that the FBI did in fact expect a fire at Mount Carmel because of reports that the FBI had called Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas about its burn unit the morning of April 19th. These were confirmed in November, 1993 when Parkland announced it was planning to sue the federal government for refusal to pay $370,000 in medical bills of three Davidians in the hospital's burn unit. Tom Cox, Parkland's legal director told reporters, "a call was made to the hospital about 6 a.m. that day, but it was unclear if it was during that call or a later call that day that the burn unit was mentioned." The hospital demanded the government pay because the Davidians were in federal custody when brought to Parkland. The government eventually did pay the bill.21/
A less publicized but equally suspicious fact is that less than an hour after the start of the fire, BATF's Special Agent-in-Charge in Dallas, Ted Royster, met the emergency helicopters at Parkland's burn unit. And he had a full contingent of BATF agents mobilized to guard them around the clock.22/
Fire Trucks Were Not On Standby
During her April 19th press conference, Reno said she thought that the fire department "had been" given advance notice of the assault. However, the department denied this.23/ As the fire raged CNN reporters asked R. G. Wilson of the Waco Fire Department if the Department was "on standby." He answered, "We have been in the past but we weren't today. We had been in contact with ATF and FBI, and they were to use normal procedures and use 9-1-1 to get a hold of us."
Fire trucks were not called until 12:13 p.m., eight minutes after the fire broke out, and did not arrive until 12:34 p.m. The FBI then held the trucks up for seven minutes before allowing them to approach the burning ruins.24/ CNN video tapes show that 31 minutes after the fire was first reported, the building is entirely gone! Representative James Traficant commented on the FBI's lack of precautions. "When you have 100 TV crews but not one fire truck, that's not a well-thought-out plan, that's box office."25/
However, the FBI's failure to call fire trucks may have been a secret precaution since the FBI probably knew that spraying thousands of gallons of water on burning CS gas might produce a hydrogen cyanide cloud that could kill nearby federal agents. The Cause Foundation claims news video footage shows several federal agents wearing Scott Air Packs (breathing apparatus) outside the burning Mount Carmel, a possible precaution against hydrogen cyanide fumes.27/
FBI SURVEILLANCE AND COMMUNICATIONS
The FBI had several operational surveillance and communication systems on April 19th. However, when it came to trial, defense attorneys discovered that crucial FBI tapes, photographs and logs were missing or never kept.
Surveillance Devices Inside Mount Carmel
At trial FBI agent Matthew Gravel revealed that the FBI had sent 11 surveillance devices into Mount Carmel, all but one of which had been discovered or had failed. The devices had a pickup range of 10 to 20 feet. The last two devices were delivered on April 18th with typewriter supplies. Davidians checked for, but could not find, any devices in the supplies. Davidian Graeme Craddock, an engineer who was in charge of the Davidians' telephone and other electrical equipment, believes that the devices were inside the corrugated cardboard of the boxes in which the FBI delivered the supplies.
Gravel estimated that the device delivered April 18th ended up approximately 10 feet inside the front door, near the communications room. Craddock saw one cardboard box inside the communications room on April 19th. Agent Gravel revealed that the other device somehow ended up outside the building, perhaps in another cardboard box thrown out the door.27/
Gravel testified that three FBI monitors in an airplane hangar at the FBI command post several miles from Mount Carmel took notes from conversations caught by the devices, even as they watched the action on television screens. Sounds also were audio taped. FBI siege commander Jeff Jamar was right down the hall and visited several times during the day.28/
Did FBI in Washington Have Live Feed of Surveillance?
The Justice report reveals that on the morning of April 19th, "the Attorney General and several senior Justice Department representatives gathered with senior FBI officials in the FBI SIOC [Strategic Information Operations Center], where they monitored events throughout the morning via CNN footage and a live audio feed directly from the FBI forward command post in Waco." Officials also remained in phone contact with FBI commanders in Waco throughout the gas and tank attack.29/ Reno's biographer Paul Anderson notes that a live audio feed came from "the FBI's operations center, a specially outfitted recreational vehicle parked beside Route 7." (It was nearby Mount Carmel.) He writes that the FBI operations center was filled with "specialized electronic monitoring equipment."30/
What neither account specifies is whether the "live audio feed" included conversations from the FBI surveillance devices hidden inside Mount Carmel Center. A New York Times article suggests it did. The article describes the scene in the Washington Operations Center as Reno and the officials listened to unfolding events inside the building.
"In Washington, Ms. Reno and the other officials watched and listened. An agent in Waco said gunfire was coming from the tower of the compound. . .Attorney General Reno and the other Federal officials, watching from Washington, were assuming that gas would compel the Davidians to evacuate. Over the eavesdropping device, someone inside the compound was heard saying, `Don't shoot until the very last minute.' Hearing that, a Federal official in Washington wondered aloud if the cult was expecting a fierce `banzai' raid. Another voice, believed to be that of David Koresh, was heard on the eavesdropping device saying, `Stay low, stay ready and loaded.' Moments later, another voice was picked up inside the compound: `Have you been gassed yet?'"31/
The story gives no further details about what else was heard over the eavesdropping equipment. (And it should be noted that this alleged Davidian conversation was never presented as evidence of Davidians firing at tanks during the trial.) Nevertheless, the story indicates that high officials could hear whatever the surveillance devices picked up, even as it happened. Considering that the FBI supposedly uses the most sophisticated and advanced technology, it would be surprising if they did not have such a simple live audio feed.
Defense attorneys described some of these sounds, ones the jury was not allowed to hear: people praying as tanks bashed through the walls, children crying and calling for their parents, Davidians discussing whether the government meant to kill them and begging the FBI for negotiations, and, in the background, the FBI loudspeaker droning on "this is not an attack."32/
The critical question of what officials and agents could or could not hear as it happened should be investigated and its moral and legal implications explored. A related question is, did the FBI make audio tapes of conversations between decision-makers inside the Washington FBI Operations Center on April 19th? If so, these were not made available to defense attorneys at trial.
Aerial Infrared Video and Other Photography
Forward looking infrared photography and video shows heat as light. It is used increasingly by law enforcement for night surveillance and tracking suspects fleeing at night. Infrared also can be used to detect "hot spots" inside a building, be they from heaters, cooking, manufacturing processes (as in of illegal drugs) and fires. However, this technology is not perfectly sensitive, even in detecting very hot spots like incipient fires. A fire deep within a building might not be detected as soon as one on a higher floor or closer to a window.
The infrared camera the FBI used on April 19th contained a small viewer that identified and placed a box around new areas of heat or fire that showed up on the developed film. Many wonder why the FBI used infrared video on April 19th. Was it expecting a fire? At trial defense attorneys got no satisfactory answers from fire investigators. And when the chief fire investigator, Paul Gray, appeared on ABC-TV's May 5, 1993 "Nightline," he admitted he did not know the reason and speculated it was to see Davidians exiting the building, something which would have been impossible on that warm day.33/
FBI agents started the infrared camera at 10:41:58 a.m. However, there is a four-and-a-half minute gap between 10:47 and 10:52 a.m. In a June 14, 1994, letter to Davidian defense attorney John F. Carroll, who had requested an explanation for the missing minutes, prosecutor Ray Jahn explained: "the gap apparently occurred when the CEVs were at the T intersection refilling their tear-gas tanks." Jahn notes he asked the FBI to "ascertain if any tape exists or if the equipment was simply not operating while the CEVs were away from the scene."
There have been press reports that the FBI's infrared cameras could tell where people were in the building from the heat radiated from their bodies, and rammed those areas. Also, some have reported they ran fiber optic cameras cables through the walls.)34/ If the FBI used such sophisticated technology, prosecutors withheld that fact from defense attorneys at trial.
The FBI also took color photographs from aircraft. Rick Sherrow reports that he has documention over 3000 such photographs were taken. However, in discovery the government gave civil suit attorneys only a few hundred.35/ It is likely that on April 19th military spy satellites were taking photographs as well. If these could be obtained, they might reveal important details about when the fire started and acts by FBI agents and tanks not otherwise caught on camera or video.
Communications with Agents in the Field
Prosecutors were required to turn over to defense attorneys all recorded audio communications and logs of communications between FBI commander Rogers and other commanders and agents at observation posts, in tanks or in aircraft.
However, two agents whose testimony was particularly important did not have any recorded radio transmissions. Agent John Morrison claimed he had seen a Davidian start a fire and had informed other agents of that fact over his radio. He stated he "definitely didn't know of any recording of radio traffic."36/ Agent R. J. Craig drove the tank that smashed in the middle front and front door of Mount Carmel and probably started one or more fires in the building. He claimed that he "had a problem" with his "intercom" around 10:00 a.m. and could not talk on his radio. When asked about missing logs of radio communications, Craig stated that normally a log of radio communications is kept but he did not know if one was kept on April 19th.37/
FBI AGENTS HOSTILE TOWARDS DAVIDIANS
The "Waco, the Big Lie Continues" video contains credible FBI SWAT team
video with various scenes of Mount Carmel Center, evidently taken by friends
of FBI agents in the footage. In one scene middle-aged FBI agents
jump into their helicopters enthusiastically yelling, "Good morning, Vietnam."
One of these agents later brags that he is ready for action and that he
is "honed to a fine edge, honed to kill." The June, 1994 issue of
Soldier of Fortune included a full-color "trophy" photograph, shown at
trial, of an unidentified, gun-toting, bulletproof vest clad federal agent
proudly posing as Mount Carmel burns 300 yards away.38/
More disturbingly, during the trial a similar trophy photograph of the FBI's chief negotiator Byron Sage with the burning building was revealed and shown to the jury.39/ This photo was taken within ten minutes of the time Sage, after urging Davidians to come out over a loudspeaker, betrayed his true feelings when he inadvertently left the microphone on and was heard to say: "I've been in the FBI for 27 years and I've never seen anything like these people. They think they can get away with murder. Well, they'll have another thing coming as soon as they come out of there."40/
Davidians allege that FBI agents treated harshly those who escaped the fire. One grabbed Ruth Riddle by the hair and shook her when she would not answer his questions. He only stopped when another agent warned him, "You better stop that, you're on camera." Another put handcuffs on Clive Doyle despite the painful burns on his arms and wrists.41/ When attorney Dan Cogdell visited Doyle in the hospital shortly after the fire, he was shocked to find his feet also were still shackled, despite burns on his lower body.42/ One must remember this hostility when considering the many questions about FBI agents' actions described in the following pages.
FBI ALLEGED DAVIDIANS SHOT AT TANKS
During his April 19th morning press briefing, FBI spokesperson Bob Ricks claimed that Davidians had shot at FBI tanks. At his press conference the next day siege commander Jeff Jamar claimed they fired "hundreds of rounds." However, evidence presented at trial did not support this claim.
The Justice report alleges FBI agents reported automatic and semi-automatic gunfire shortly after the gassing began.43/ FBI sniper Kenneth Vincent, who was stationed 300 yards south of Mount Carmel, testified that shortly after the first tank assaults at 6:00 a.m. he saw rounds ricochet off the tank, heard "sounds consistent with gunfire," and saw fabric moving. Tank driver James McGee testified he "observed rounds penetrate a screen," but admitted he did not hear any gunfire.44/
Tank driver Tom Rowan said he saw "muzzle flashes" from a shoulder weapon held by a Davidian in one of the three story towers and he returned several gas grenade rounds at the man; he claims they exchanged fire for 30 to 40 seconds until the man stopped shooting. (Rowan said he did not choose to use the M-16 machinegun he carried in his tank.)45/
Mike Toulouse, an observer stationed in the barn north of Mount Carmel, testified that he heard periodic gunfire during the day--including just once from an automatic weapon--and that shots flew over his head after the fire started. Toulouse conceded that although he saw a man standing near what looked like a .50-caliber gun, he did not hear any .50-caliber gunfire.46/
At trial the government never provided evidence that the tanks had suffered gunshot damage. Nor did it provide evidence of the sounds of gunfire from the surveillance device placed inside the building. Agents' paltry evidence of gunfire provided the excuse for the massacre that followed.
Agents Not Afraid to Leave Tanks
According to Newsweek, "HRT was under orders not to leave its tanks or enter the compound on foot. . .HRT agents did have authority to leave their tanks but only in the rarest circumstances, such as children being killed or held hostage."47/ During the 10:30 a.m. press briefing SAC Bob Ricks stated, "We are not exposing any of our agents individually to firearms." However, news footage contained in "Waco, the Big Lie" clearly shows agents jumping in and out of the open back hatch of a tank early that morning.
KPOC-TV's video "The Waco Incident" shows what the producer claims is an agent walking beside a tank as it pulls out of the front door. CNN news video shows agents, even early in the fire, jumping out of their tanks to apprehend Davidians fleeing the building. If there really had been "hundreds of rounds" of gunfire coming from Mount Carmel, it is doubtful agents would have left their tanks so freely.
Davidians Deny Firing at Tanks
Defense attorneys asserted that surveillance audio recorded inside Mount Carmel on April 19th contains evidence that Davidians did not fire on tanks. They claim Davidians can be heard making statements like, "I want no firing around the back or anywhere else," and "I don't know why they say that cause we haven't been firing."48/
When fire survivor David Thibodeau heard on the radio that the FBI alleged Davidians had fired on the tanks, Thibodeau's reaction was: "I knew it was over. I didn't hear any shots from my side of the building. . .I could see they were setting up the American people for a disaster. I was prepared to die at that point."49/
On April 21, 1993 fire survivor Jaime Castillo's attorney Jeff Kearney told NBC-TV's "Today" that Castillo said Davidians were instructed not to fire on the tanks. Graeme Craddock asserts he heard no such firing. Craddock and Thibodeau both concede it is possible some Davidians shot in self-defense, but they did not hear it over the sounds of rampaging tanks and grenades.50/ However, it also remains possible that some or all agents fabricated their stories of hearing or seeing firing in order to excuse actions which still conceivably could lead to serious charges against FBI agents.
FBI APPLIED NEW RULES OF ENGAGEMENT
The Justice report states that upon hearing there was return fire, the
"FBI"--what individuals actually made the decision is not revealed--immediately
moved to apply the attorney general-approved "rules of engagement," i.e.,
"appropriate deadly force will be used," and "opted to escalate the gassing
operation." The report states that, "In fact, the FBI did not fire
a shot during the entire operation."51/
The FBI obviously does not consider the more than 400 ferret tear gas rounds--or gas grenades--that M79 grenade launchers shot into the building to be artillery, even though they are capable of penetrating a hollow core door and killing human beings. As we have seen, FBI tank driver Tom Rowan revealed he shot gas grenades at a man allegedly shooting a gun at him.
The Justice report justifies its speed up of operations, mentioning the attorney general's prior approval, danger to tank drivers from rounds penetrating tank openings and the claim that the FBI had "exercised remarkable restraint" during the 51 days.52/ FBI agents used their gas grenades and their tanks as deadly weapons--ones that succeeded in killing most Davidians.
THE GAS ATTACK
Because of the FBI's concern Davidians might escape into the large underground
tornado shelter, they gassed it early in the morning. (Contrary to
assertions in "Waco, the Big Lie," no Davidians were burned to death in
what the video calls the "underground bunker.") Agent Rowan's tank
delivered gas grenades into the back window of the "dog run" over the gymnasium,
where allegedly there was a .50 caliber weapon, and into the four story
tower.53/ Agent Craig's tank then gassed the hallway leading to the
buried bus that was a tunnel to the shelter to prevent people from escaping
into the buried bus. At trial Craig denied ever driving over the
bus because he didn't want to crush it.54/ However, in news
video, including that in both "Waco, the Big Lie" videos, it does appear
that FBI tanks both smash into the building next to the bus and actually
run over the bus.
The gassing had relatively little effect on Davidians because they wore gas masks and because stiff winds rushing through the large holes created by tanks quickly dispersed the gas. Some childrens' masks were made to fit with the help of wet towels; other children had wet blankets placed over their heads to protect them from the gas. Attorney Jack Zimmermann revealed that Davidians donned gas masks and went about their normal routines. "They thought they were going to spray some tear gas and retreat." Survivors said they still believed the FBI's promise it would allow Koresh to finish his book about the Seven Seals.55/
The tank attacks and gas grenades drove most Davidians into the concrete room or to the second floor hallways or third floor bedrooms to escape injury. When asked by a defense attorney about the dangers of gas grenades to children, FBI agent Rowan, answered, "I'm sure everyone was concerned about the children's safety. That's why we were used a nonlethal means to get them out of there."56/ One wonders if there had been no children there whether Rowan and the FBI would have considered it proper to use lethal gas--or event to bomb Mount Carmel to smithereens.
FBI REFUSED TO NEGOTIATE
On April 28, 1993 Attorney General Janet Reno told the House Judiciary Committee she directed that, "if it appeared that, as a result of the initial use of tear gas, Koresh was prepared to negotiate in good faith for his ultimate surrender, the FBI was to cease the operation." Defense attorney Mike DeGeurin, who had heard the surveillance tapes, said that Davidians were pleading for negotiations.57/ However, at 10:30 a.m. central time, one half hour after Reno had left the FBI's Washington Operations Center, FBI spokesperson Bob Ricks stated: "We're not negotiating. We're saying come out. Come out with your hands up. This matter is over."58/
Davidians Did Not Throw Out Phone
During his 10:30 a.m. press briefing FBI spokesperson Bob Ricks claimed that Steve Schneider threw the phone out the window at 6:00 a.m., right after the FBI told him that they were about to begin the gas attack. The Justice report does not specify Schneider, one of the Davidians' chief negotiators.59/ However, engineer Graeme Craddock, who was in charge of Davidian equipment, asserts that as soon as he heard this report on the radio, he went to the communications room and found all the phones in their usual positions. None had been thrown out the window.
Tank Broke the Phone Line
At 6:24 a.m. FBI loudspeakers instructed the Davidians to fly a white flag to signal "their phone was not working and they wanted to reestablish phone contact." They did so, but quickly replaced it with a non-surrender dark blanket hung outside the front door. Chief negotiator Sage then gave them two minutes to surrender. They did not. At 9:10 the Davidians hung out a white banner reading, "We want our phones fixed."60/
According to the Justice report, at 9:49 a.m. FBI negotiators announced over loudspeakers that "the phone would be reconnected only if the Davidians clearly indicated they intended to use the phone to make surrender arrangements." At this time "Craddock went outside to retrieve the phone, holding it up to indicate the line had been severed."61/ However, Graeme Craddock denies that he found a phone outside the building. Instead he says he pulled at the phone line until he discovered that it had been severed by a tank and then, using a scissor motion, indicated the line had been cut. He believes he saw further confirmation the line had been severed by tanks in FBI photographs presented at trial. They clearly showed the line intact on April 18th and severed on April 19th.62/
Neither the FBI nor Justice Department have admitted tanks broke the wire. At trial FBI tank driver R. J. Craig did concede that tanks could have cut the line.63/ And the Justice report conveniently "redacts" the sentence after that which describes Craddock's action--a sentence which probably reveals that the tank cut the line. Texas Ranger Fred Cummings, whose job it was to find evidence on the ground in front of Mount Carmel, testified that he found neither a phone nor a phone wire during his search.64/ That Rangers found no phone line suggests FBI agents destroyed that evidence.
FBI Excuses for Not Negotiating
Craddock's gesture that the line had been severed did not motivate the FBI to action. "The FBI was unwilling to expose its agents such a risk (sic) absent a clear signal from the Davidians that they would use the reconnected phone to make surrender agents (sic) with the FBI. The Davidians never provided such a signal."65/ The two syntax errors in the Justice report smack of desperate and hasty rewrites as Justice employees tried to excuse the FBI's failure to do the minimum necessary to facilitate any surrender.
After the fire, FBI commander Jeff Jamar told reporters that although the Davidians seemed willing to talk, "We tried to figure out a way to get a line, but we couldn't figure out a way to do it safely."66/ Obviously, it never occurred to Jamar--or to Janet Reno, Webster Hubbell or William Sessions--that a "safe" way to do so would be to stop the gas attack and pull back the tanks.
We must wonder if Janet Reno lied to Congress when she asserted that she told the FBI that if Koresh was prepared to negotiate in good faith, the FBI was to desist. Surely she could hear evidence the Davidians wanted to negotiate, including from any live audio feed, before she left the FBI Operations Center at 10:00 a.m. Central Time. And she probably saw on television the banner reading requesting the phones be "fixed." Why didn't she direct the FBI to do so at that time?
WHO WAS IN CONTROL AFTER RENO LEFT FBI OPERATIONS CENTER?
The Justice report does not mention which officials besides Attorney General
Janet Reno gathered in the Washington FBI Operations Center--nor did news
reports. However, former FBI Director William Sessions revealed during
the April 28, 1993 House Judiciary Committee hearing that Associate Attorney
General Webster Hubbell and Assistant Deputy Attorney General Mark Richard
also were there. Sessions revealed they "probably" were there when
the fire started. Given Hubbell's alleged penchant for control, we
must assume he was.
FBI Deputy Director Floyd Clarke disclosed during the April 28th hearing that he also was in the Operations Center. Other FBI officials in attendance probably included Associate Deputy Director for Investigations Doug Gow and Assistant Director of the Criminal Investigative Division Larry Potts.
The report notes that Janet Reno left the FBI Operations Center at 10:00 a.m. Central Time (11:00 a.m. Eastern Time) because "The Attorney General believed it was not necessary to remain in the SIOC because it appeared that the operation would continue for many more hours."67/ She mentioned in the House Judiciary Committee hearing that she called President Clinton at this time before leaving to speak at a judicial conference in Baltimore. She did not reveal the content of that conversation.
After Reno departed, Webster Hubbell would have been the highest ranking official in the FBI Operations Center. However, it has never been revealed if Reno put him in charge. When quizzed by Representative Lamar Smith during the April 28, 1993 House Judiciary Committee hearing, Reno answered that after she left she communicated with the President through the intermediary of Webster Hubbell who spoke with the White House counsel. (Reno did confess that, while she had claimed on television the evening of April 19th that Hubbell had spoken directly to Clinton on April 19th, she really did not know whether he had. The Justice report later stated Hubbell had actually spoken to White House Chief of Staff Thomas McLarty and not to Clinton.68/)
FATAL DECISION TO ESCALATE TO DEMOLITION
FBI tank attacks became more and more vicious as the morning progressed. At least three times a tank smashed into the middle front of the building, toward the concrete room under the tower, collapsing hallway walls and the interior stairwell by the kitchen. A tank rammed into the double front doors--which contained important evidence of BATF crimes--and damaged the stairwell near them. Other tanks ripped away at the old arms' room and the gymnasium. At some point some yet unidentified official in Washington or agent in Waco gave the order to begin demolition of the building.
FBI Expected Demolition Would Be Necessary
The FBI did not expect gassing alone to work. One reporter wrote that SAC Bob Ricks at the 10:30 a.m. press briefing revealed the FBI "did not expect cult members to begin leaving the complex, despite the power of the tear gas."69/ He stated, "The pounding of the compound that you see is really a necessary function of the insertion of the gas. . .So, it's not necessarily, at this point, one of destruction to the compound." However, he did point out that the tanks could destroy the building within an hour if they so chose.
The "Apparent Deviation" from the Plan
Edward S. G. Dennis, who oversaw the Justice Department's review of the FBI's action in Waco, wrote in his report that at sometime after 11:00 a.m. "an apparent deviation from the approved plan began. The plan had contemplated that the building would only be dismantled if after 48 hours not all the people had come out." However, the FBI did not wait 48 hours.70/
At trial Judge Walter Smith would not allow defense attorneys to call FBI siege commander Jeff Jamar or HRT commander Richard Rogers to question them under oath about whether there was a specific decision to demolish the building. Some evidence must be gleaned from the testimony of R. J. Craig, the tank driver who made the entries into the middle front and the front doors. (Prosecutors did not call to the stand the tank driver who brought down the gymnasium, whom Craig identified as Garry Harris.)71/
Craig testified that Rogers first told him to go as far as possible inside the middle section of the building toward the tower to gas the area. Craig went in cautiously at first, afraid of falling into a cellar or collapsing the roof onto the tank. He eventually drove 15 feet inside the building. News video shows substantial damage to the roof area where the tank went in. Craig's tank also entered the front door area several times, dragging the doors completely away from the building.72/
At noon Richard Rogers ordered Craig to enter the front door to gas the interior and told him that a second tank at the back of the building would be advancing towards the tower and the concrete room below it at the same time, in a coordinated attack. However, the swimming pool to the north and storage tanks to the north west of the building blocked the second tank's approach to the concrete room. This second tank, which at 9:30 a.m. had replaced another which threw a track that morning, did not have a gas delivery system as had the one it replaced. It was used purely to smash away at the gymnasium and its goal was to smash in the concrete room which held more than 30 people, mostly women and children. It never reached that room.73/
Craig denied that he was given any instructions to begin the "collapse" of the building. However, since there is no log or tape of his communications with Rogers, his denial remains suspect.74/
Why Did FBI Speed Up Demolition?
At 8:01 a.m. the FBI asked the National Guard to make arrangements to refuel the tanks at 2:00 p.m., "indicating that even after the FBI had escalated the pace of the gas insertions it expected the standoff to last many more hours."75/ Why did FBI agents in Waco or FBI and Justice Department officials in Washington decide to speed up the operation and proceed to demolition, instead of waiting 48 hours? One explanation is that they gave up on gassing, realizing that the stiff winds and large holes in the building were rendering the CS gas ineffective as a means of persuading the Davidians to surrender. Another is that they calculated agents had put on enough of a "show" of gassing and that it was now time to advance to the true agenda--forcing the defiant Davidians out and destroying a building filled with incriminating evidence of the lethal BATF attack.
Justice Department and FBI Deny Demolition
While Edward Dennis' acknowledges that the tanks began demolition of Mount Carmel, Justice Department and FBI agents and officials refused to admit it. At the April 19th afternoon FBI press conference following the fire, Bob Ricks explained that the FBI was just trying to insert gas into the concrete room where they assumed Koresh and the other leaders were hiding, and "that's why the CEV went in so far." During an April 21, 1993 press briefing in Washington, unnamed senior Justice Department officials also told reporters that agents began battering the walls so tanks could inject the CS gas deeper into the building to counteract high winds.76/
However, on April 19th FBI Director William Sessions told CNN's Bernard Shaw that the tank punched the hole in the front door to help people escape. On April 28, 1993 FBI Deputy Director Floyd Clarke explained to the House Judiciary Committee the reason the FBI simultaneously drove the tanks through the front door, side and back of the building was "to give these people ways to exit the building, which some later used." These explanations remain dubious.
When reporters asked Justice spokesperson Carl Stern if Reno thought agents in Waco had exceeded the plan that she approved, Stern claimed she had said, "I don't think so."77/ The only relevant comment Reno herself has made is her oft-repeated statement, "I made the decision. The buck stops here."
DEMOLITION TRAPPED AND KILLED DAVIDIANS INSIDE THE BUILDING
The fact that debris trapped Davidians inside Mount Carmel was reported immediately. What was not reported, and was barely mentioned ten months later during the trial of eleven Branch Davidians, was that at least three women and six children were killed before the fire by ceilings and floors that were collapsed by the tank that smashed into the front of the building.
Tanks Collapsed Stairwells, Smashed Exits
The tank attacks destroyed the three stairways--one near the front door, one in front of the four story tower, and one near the back of the gymnasium--and smashed in the front door and several side and back doors. Attorney Jack Zimmermann described the bedlam: "People were trapped; the building was falling down, the damn tanks had just destroyed the structure and nobody knew where they were because the ceiling had fallen in."78/ He also said the big tank's "concussion tipped everything over on the second floor, collapsed the walls and stairwells."79/
Fire survivor Jaime Castillo "tried to move around the building, but the repeated pounding on the exterior had piled rubble everywhere. The central stairway between the first and second floors was littered with plasterboard and wood and had partially collapsed."80/ Ruth Riddle explained, "I believe that they couldn't get out. Where the buildings were rammed is where the staircases were."81/ David Thibodeau agreed: "I could see people being trapped, 'cause when the tanks did go in there, there were hallways, there were places that were cut off."82/
Tank Attack Killed Davidians in Concrete Room
FBI tank assaults killed at least three women and six children before the fire started. An Associated Press story describes the tank that smashed through the front door at noon: "Then the FBI sent in its biggest weapon--a massive armored vehicle larger than the others and headed for a chamber lined with cinder blocks where authorities hoped to find Mr. Koresh and Mr. Schneider and fire the chemical irritant directly at them. When the tank rumbled in, it produced such trembling it felt like an earthquake. The tank took out everything in its path."83/
The concrete room contained two rooms, a walk-in refrigerator and a gun room. And it supported three more stories of the tower. Tanks repeatedly knocking the front roof, tower walls and wooden struts supporting the tower doubtless loosened the concrete ceiling and roof. The noontime tank attack may have provided the final stress that collapsed several hundred pounds of concrete from the room's ceiling onto women and children. Partitions between the two rooms, shelving in the rooms, or stacked boxes of foodstuffs and ammunition also may have fallen on them.84/ FBI photographs clearly show a thick layer of fallen concrete debris on the inside floor of the room after the fire.
Tarrant County medical examiner Nizam Peerwani testified at trial that nine women and children who died in that room had no smoke in their lungs, indicating they died before the fire. He speculated that five children suffocated when the debris fell on blankets protecting them from the CS gas.85/ (It also is possible some were suffocated by the CS gas.) David Koresh's wife, Rachel, and Steve Schneider's wife, Judy, as well as another woman and a child, were "buried alive." The official autopsy reports notes they died of "suffocation due to overlay and burial in structural collapse."86/ (Peerwani's autopsy list also indicates a teenage girl and a year-old girl died of blunt force trauma and that a male child had been "stabbed"--however, this could have been a wound from a sharp object in the falling debris.) Because most of these people died as a result of the tank attack, before the fire, government agents and officials could and should be held accountable for their deaths.
In November, 1993 pathologist Dr. Rodney Crowe told "The Maury Povich Show" audience that he was incensed that these deaths, which clearly were caused by the tanks, later were blamed on the Davidians. "In our local Fort Worth paper on the front page it said, `Cultist Children Executed'. . .and mentioned that children were shot, stabbed, beaten to death. . .Nowhere did we say execution. Nowhere did we say beaten to death. It was blunt force trauma. Three children had blunt force trauma. But it was from the falling concrete in the bunker that fell on them."
Color overhead shots of the ruins in the May 3, 1993 editions of both Time and Newsweek show a two-foot hole near the middle of the roof. A two-page photo spread of the concrete room in Time magazine shows the corner of the concrete room left of the door smashed and crumbling and at least two good sized dents in a wall which might have been caused by debris smashed against the wall by a tank.
At trial Texas Ranger Ray Coffman alleged that an "explosion" of some kind knocked the hole in the roof, which was made of six-inch rebar concrete. He testified that hundreds of pieces of exploded grenades were found on top of the concrete room, inferring these might have created the hole. However, there is no evidence any explosion occurred before the fire. The hole kept getting bigger as the roof sagged.87/
A large propane tank near the concrete room exploded at approximately 12:20, after the collapse of the four story tower, creating the huge fireball so often shown in news reports. Its shockwaves also could have caused or enlarged the hole.
The Ramsey Clark lawsuit contains Gordon Novel's controversial assertion that around noon "FBI defendants proceed to the second floor and placed an explosive material on the top of the concrete Church vault at the second floor level," a device which later caused the explosion killing those inside the room 10 minutes into the fire.88/ This theory is questionable because it relies on agents somehow making their way to the second floor, despite collapsed staircases, and encountering no living Davidians. Several surviving Davidians saw others on the second floor right before the fire.
At trial medical examiner Peerwani also testified that a woman (later identified as Diane Martin, 41) died from a fall before the fire because she had no smoke in her lungs. She died of multiple fractures of the cervical spine, caused by blunt force trauma. Because Martin's body was found in front of the concrete room, it is possible she feel down into the collapsed stairwell. There have been no assertions by medical examiners or civil suit attorneys that any Davidians were injured or killed by the collapse of the large gymnasium roof.89/
Tank Debris Blocked Entrance to Buried Bus
During the April 20th FBI press conference SAC Jeff Jamar alleged, "Mr. Koresh obviously intended for the children to die or he would have put them in a safe place--such as the buried bus beneath the compound. . .Had Koresh wished those children to survive, that was one place they could have been put safely when he had the fire started." President Clinton also mentioned this "fact" during his April 20 press conference.
However, Jamar should have known that during the morning a 50-ton tank had pulled down debris on top of the trap door leading to the bus. The Fire Report admits that "a significant amount of structural debris was found in this area indicating that the breaching operations could have caused this route to be blocked."90/ Medical examiner Peerwani testified that six women found a few feet from the trap door leading to the buried bus may have been blocked from reaching it by rubble.91/ (However, as we shall see, it is possible these women died on the second floor.)
Jurors Shocked by Evidence of Demolition
A defense attorney commented to reporters on photos presented to the jury: "They clearly show that the damage to Mount Carmel center was far, far greater than either the jury or the public was previously led to believe. It's obvious that the tanks smashed huge portions of that place to smithereens."92/
After the trial, one juror told reporters: "I couldn't imagine anybody being in a home with that many women and children and having a big tank coming through the front door. And they penetrated a room's length or more. . .This is America. This isn't a police state. I don't care what they did. I can't see that. And I wasn't predetermined. I didn't realize the tanks had done that until I was shown by the government."93/
Government Denied Davidians Were Trapped
Despite all this evidence, the Justice report refuses to concede the possibility that the tanks ramming the building trapped Davidians. "While the fire was burning the negotiators repeatedly broadcast repeated (sic) messages to the compound, pleading with the residents to leave. Only a few of the Davidians heeded those pleas."94/
The government claims that 22 bodies, including that of David Koresh, were found in the first floor communications room, kitchen/serving area or in front of the bunker, rooms which caught fire later than other rooms. However, Davidian Graeme Craddock testified he stuck his head up through the chapel ceiling tiles and looked down the second floor hallway just minutes before the fire broke out. He saw David Koresh and a number of people in the hallway.95/ Fire survivor David Thibodeau claimed in a television interview that Koresh was on the second floor that day.96/ Clive Doyle says Renos Avraam told him he was in a second floor bedroom with David Koresh and Steve Schneider when the smoke engulfed them, making it impossible to see. He managed to jump through a window.97/
It is likely the government, with the help of investigators and medical examiners, is covering up the fact that most of these people were trapped by tanks on the second, third and fourth floors. The government claims David Koresh and Steve Schneider committed suicide in the first floor communications room just a few feet from the wide open hole in what had been the front door. However, like perhaps two dozen other Davidians, they were trapped on the upper floors of the building where they fled to escape the tanks.
During the April 28, 1993 House Judiciary Committee hearing, Representative James Sensenbrenner, who himself had barely escaped a disastrous house fire, questioned why so many bodies were found near the first floor middle front of the building, which caught fire later than the back and the side. Assistant Director for the Criminal Investigative Division Larry Potts answered that the FBI had "statements from people in there who chose to come out" that others had "chosen not to come out." However, no such statements were included in the Justice report or alleged at trial. This is just one more example of FBI officials and agents lying to Congress and the public.
Ruth Riddle interview, NBC-TV's "Dateline," June 15, 1993.
2. Sue Anne Pressley, "Davidians Set Blaze, Officials Say," Washington Post, April 20, 1993, A20.
3. Kirk Lyons, August 14, 1994 speech at Lincoln Memorial Gun Rights Rally; trial transcript, p. 5498.
4. Justice Department report, pgs. 285-300, 331; Michael J. McNulty and Michael Salmen, Citizens Organization for Public Safety, "Infrared Government Video Analysis, June 1, 1994," pgs. 1-2; Michael McNulty, private communication, April, 1995.
5. Trial transcript, pgs. 5892, 5943-44.
6. Dirk Johnson, April 26, 1993, B10.
8. Reno statement at April 28, 1993 House Judiciary Committee hearing.
9. Justice Department report, p. 294.
10. Ross E. Milloy, "An Angry Telephone Calls Signals the End of the World for Cult Members," New York Times, April 20, 1993, A21.
11. Trial transcript, pgs. 5498, 5648-52.
12. Treasury Department report, p. 279.
13. Brad Bailey and Bob Darden, p. 211.
14. All references from E-mail transcript of the April 19, 1993 FBI 10:30 a.m. press briefing.
15. Trial transcripts, pgs. 5067, 5608-09, 5648-52.
16. Justice Department report, p. 302-303.
17. Trial transcript, p. 5477; James Pate, "Wacogate," Soldier of Fortune, June, 1995, p. 49.
18. Justice Department report, p. 274.
19. Trial transcript, p. 5573.
20. Confirmed by Joyce Sparks' husband, Frank Leahy, private communication, March, 1995.
21. Laura Bell, "Parkland to Sue Over Davidians' Medical Bills," Dallas Morning News, November 4, 1993; "Feds to repay Texas hospital for Branch Davidians' medical care," NurseWeek, California Edition, June 2, 1994, p. 4.
22. Hugh Aynesworth, "Fire kills Koresh, most of his flock," Washington Times, April 20, 1994.
23. Stephen Labaton, "Reno Says Suicides Seemed Unlikely," New York Times, April 20, 1993, A21.
24. Justice Department report, p. 303.
25. Louis Sahagun and J. Michael Kennedy, April 21, 1993.
26. "Waco Suits Continue," The Balance, newsletter of the Cause Foundation, July, 1994, p. 5; Michael McNulty, private communication, April, 1995.
27. Trial transcript, p. 6119, 6206-07, 6241; Graeme Craddock, private communication, January, 1995.
28. Trial transcript, pgs. 6228, 6237.
29. Justice Department report, p. 285.
30. Paul Anderson, (John Wiley and Sons: New York, 1994), pgs. 186, 192-193.
31. Dirk Johnson, April 26, 1993, B10.
32. "Prosecution Completes Case Against 11 Koresh Followers," New York Times, February 16, 1994; James L. Pate, June, 1994, p. 33. Trial transcript, p. 5946, 5957.
34. "FBI brings out secret electronic weapons as Waco siege drags on," Sunday Times of London, March 21, 1993; Bonnie Anderson, CNN News, April 19, 1993.
35. Rick Sherrow, private communication, May, 1995.
36. Trial transcript, pgs. 5278-79; Justice Department report, p. 296-97.
37. Ibid. p. 5583, 5585.
38. James L. Pate, June, 1994, p. 32.
39. Trial transcript, pgs. 6415-7, 6417, 6418.
40. "Bad Attitude Turns Fatal," The Balance, newsletter of the Cause Foundation, August, 1993; Cause Foundation lawsuit (February 14, 1994).
41. "The Waco Incident: The True Story" video, September, 1994.
42. Arts & Entertainment "American Justice" program "Attack at Waco," August 3, 1994.
43. Justice Department report, p. 288-289.
44. Trial transcript, p. 5373-74, 5399, 5470-71.
45. Ibid. pgs. 5142, 5149, 5151.
46. Ibid. pgs. 5017, 5021.
47. Newsweek, May 3, 1993, p. 28.
48. Trial transcript, pgs. 6308, 6311.
49. David Thibodeau comments at Reunion Institute Dinner, November 22, 1993.
50. David Thibodeau and Graeme Craddock, private communications, January, 1995.
51. Justice Department report, p. 288-289.
52. Ibid. p. 289.
53. Trial transcript, p. 5144, 5147.
54. Ibid. pgs. 5518, 5538.
55. Sue Anne Pressley and Mary Jordan, "Cult survivors offer glimpse inside waco inferno," Washington Post, April 24, 1993, A7.
56. Trial transcript, p. 5165.
57. Sam Howe Verhovek, New York Times, February 24, 1994; trial transcript, pgs. 6303-04.
58. James L. Pate, "A Blundering Inferno," Soldier of Fortune, July, 1993, p. 40.
59. Sue Ann Pressley, "Davidians set blaze, officials say," Washington Post, April 20, 1993, A8; Justice Department report, p. 286.
60. Justice Department report, pgs. 292-293.
61. Ibid. p. 293
62. Graeme Craddock, private communication, January, 1995.
63. Trial transcript, p. 5659.
64. Ibid. p. 1083.
65. Craeme Craddock, private communicaiton, January, 1995; Justice Department report, p. 293.
66. Dirk Johnson, April 26, 1993, B10.
67. Justice Department report, p. 293.
68. Ibid. p. 245.
69. Sue Anne Pressley, April 20, 1993, A20.
70. Edward S. G. Dennis, Jr. report to Justice Department, 1993, p. 59.
71. Trial transcript, pgs. 5595, 5652-53.
72. Ibid. pgs. 5548, 5588, 5592.
73. Justice Department report p. 292; trial transcript, p. 5641-42.
74. Trial transcript, pgs. 5608-9, 5640-41.
75. Justice Department report, p. 291.
76. Michael Isikoff and Pierre Thomas, April 22, 1993, A14.
77. Ross Milloy, April 20, 1993, A21.
78. Associated Press wire story, April 22, 1993, 08:26 EDT.
79. James L. Pate, October, 1993, p. 75.
80. Newsweek, May 3, 1993, p. 26.
81. Ruth Riddle interview, NBC's "Dateline," June 15, 1993.
82. David Thibodeau interview, "Good Morning America," May 15, 1993.
83. Associated Press story, "Tanks, chemicals couldn't break resolve of cultists," Washington Times, April 23, 1993.
84. Kirk Lyons, private communiation, June, 1995.
85. Trial transcript, pgs. 5979, 6029.
86. Paul McKay, "Witness claims Davidian bragged about shooting," Houston Chronicle, February 12, 1994.
87. Trial transcript, pgs. 900, 904, 916, 937, 938-39.
88. Ramsey Clark lawsuit, pgs. 43-44.
89. Mark England, "27 more cultists identified," Waco Tribune-Herald, February 16, 1994, 3C; trial transcript, p. 5973, 6026-27.
90. Justice Department report, Fire report, p. 10.
91. "Davidian's Fiery Escape Ill-Fated," San Antonio Express-News, February 12, 1994.
92. "Jury in Sect's Trial Veiws Photos of F.B.I. Assault," New York Times, February 8, 1994.
93. Associated Press wire story, "Cult Trial Jurors Rip Government's Actions," Austin American-Statesman, March 1, 1994, B3.
94. Justice Department report, p. 299-300.
95. Trial transcript, pgs. 6373-76.
96. David Thibodeau interview, "Current Affair," May 3, 1993.
97. Clive Doyle, private communication, May, 1995.